|Version 2.1 (working name 'sdo-ganymede') includes many small fixes, some new vocabulary, as well as the first release of the 'hosted extensions' mechanism, featuring bib(liographic) and auto(mobile) extensions for final review. A pre-release of this version of schema.org was available at sdo-ganymede.appspot.com/ for review.
- Fix to #611: Added Person as expected value for publisher property.
- Fix to #596: Documented that affiliation is a sub-property of memberOf.
- Fix to #207: Added a Bridge type under CivicStructure.
- Fix to #346: Added URL as expected value for genre property.
- Fix to #374: Added Report type under Article, and a reportNumber property.
- Fix to #577: Amended videoFormat to indicate that it is expected on BroadcastEvent and ScreeningEvent, rather than TelevisionStation.
- Fix to #535: Broadened domain of parentOrganization to allow any Organization, rather than only LocalBusiness. Noted parentOrganization and subOrganization as inverses.
- Fix to #531: Added the lyrics property to MusicComposition.
- Fix to #518: Renamed paymentDue property to paymentDueDate. Changed paymentStatus property to expect an enumerated value of type PaymentStatusType in addition to Text. The options are: PaymentComplete, PaymentDue, PaymentPastDue, PaymentDeclined and PaymentAutomaticallyApplied.
- Fix to #137: Deprecated UserInteraction and its children in favor of a new type: InteractionCounter. InteractionCounter allows for reporting aggregated statistics by service and type. Thanks elf Pavlik for collaboration.
- Fix to #526: Added new types LiveBlogPosting, SocialMediaPosting, and DiscussionForumPosting, alongside supporting properties.
- Fix to #334: Updated the controlled values for accessibilityHazard shown in examples to follow latest community recommendations: 'noFlashing' is now 'noFlashingHazard', 'noMotionSimulation' is 'noMotionSimulationHazard', and 'noSound' is 'noSoundHazard'.
- Fix to #429: Hosted extensions e.g. bib.schema.org are now enabled and linked from 'core' pages with appropriate navigation and styling.
- Fix to #655: Extension definitions now include an isPartOf property to link them to the extension.
- Fix to #527: Added materials from Kickoff Workshop in 2011.
- Fix to #78: Multiple supertypes are now displayed properly. It is possible for several schema.org types to apply to a single thing, and for a type to have multiple parent types. This is relatively rare, but important to display. For example, anything that is a LocalBusiness is considered both an Organization and a Place; so all subtypes of LocalBusiness have both as supertypes. We can now show this more clearly, e.g. ElectronicsStore.
- Added CSS for explicit styling (
class="needsreview") in releases page during Steering Group review of candidate releases.
- Fix to #557, #660, #695, #469: Several DataType-related navigation fixes, following recent modeling changes.
- Fix to #548: Added a favicon.ico image. The text is tiny and not intended for humans to read.
- Behind the scenes: cleanup and improvements to Python code, unit tests, CSS, filetree layout.
Quick fixes and Examples
|Version 2.0 consolidates and integrates schema.org's existing vocabulary. This version features many updated definitions, type/property associations and term names that
improve consistency and usability. It also introduces a new extension system.
Version 2.0 adds various new terms including mainEntityOfPage and major contributions from the
Automotive Ontology community.
Fix to #262: Added new vocabulary for Car:
The new vocabulary includes a number of properties such as: numberOfAirbags,
Thanks to Martin Hepp, Mirek Sopek, Karol Szczepański and others
in the Automotive Ontology community group.
We anticipate substantial additions that build on this foundation will be contributed as an extension.
Fix to #301: Added a generic property/values mechanism, building upon PropertyValueSpecification, StructuredValue and value; added
PropertyValue and additionalProperty. See examples for usage. This is a lightweight
mechanism to allow markup of properties that are not easily mapped to existing schema.org properties. Whenever possible, it is generally better to use a dedicated schema.org property if one exists.
- Fix to #301: Added mainEntityOfPage (and an inverse, mainEntity) to indicate which of the entities mentioned in a page is its primary topic.
- Fix to #225: Added a schemaVersion property, for use by applications that require more precise referencing of schema versions.
- Fix to #266: Added OrderItem to allow ParcelDelivery to be tracked per item, not just on an entire Order.
- Fix to #170: Clarifying CommentAction, Comment by deprecating UserComments. Several mentions of UserComments removed from other terms. 'inLanguage' supersedes 'language'. Added a resultComment property. UserInteraction and sub-types will be deprecated.
- Fix to #300: Answer is now a sub-type of Comment. The 'question' property expects 'Question' type for its values (rather than Text as in AskAction previously). Added resultComment on ReplyAction. Cleaned up examples.
- Fix to #130: Amended True and False to be instances (rather than sub-types) of Boolean.
- Fix to #218: Amended DataType to model it as a sub-class of Class, with each datatype e.g. Boolean, Text, Date, DateTime, Time etc. being classes that have a typeOf DataType. DataTypes can have sub-types, e.g. Integer and Float are subtypes of Number.
- Fix to #328: Added ScreeningEvent to support movie/video screenings.
- Fix to #314: Added MovieClip and VideoGameClip as parallels to TVClip and RadioClip.
- Fix to #122: Added gtin12 property for Product.
- Fix to #417: Renamed many types and properties, which had overly generic names. This is no cause for alarm,
the superseded names can still be used, although we encourage consumers and producers of schema.org data to move towards the newer terminology.
CreativeWorkSeason was Season,
CreativeWorkSeries was Series,
SoftwareSourceCode was Code,
TaxiService was Taxi,
actionApplication was application,
actionOption was option,
artMedium was material,
artworkSurface was surface,
availableOnDevice was device,
branchOf was parentOrganization,
broadcastTimezone was timezone,
codeSampleType was sampleType,
containsSeason was season,
datasetTimeInterval was temporal,
executableLibraryName was assembly,
exerciseCourse was course,
exerciseRelatedDiet was diet,
incentiveCompensation was incentives,
includedDataCatalog was catalog,
isAccessibleForFree was free,
jobBenefits was benefits,
runtimePlatform was runtime,
serviceArea was area,
serviceOutput was produces,
softwareRequirements was requirements,
targetCollection was collection.
- Fix to #429: Implementation of new extension system.
- Fix to #6: Improved 404 handler for missing pages, with support for old-style "/Person/Minister" extension URLs and Action-related "/query-input" pseudo-properties.
- Fix to #318: Added an experimental JSON(-LD) view of the hierarchy. This combines D3 with RDF schema. Thanks to Gregg Kellogg and Sandro Hawke for collaboration.
- Various behind-the-scenes improvement to the site software.
Quick fixes and Examples
- Fix to #119: Added a link to GS1's page giving background information on /globalLocationNumber.
- Fix to #471: Added a JSON example for exampleOfWork and workExample.
- Fix to #131: Amended category to be applicable to Product
- Fix to #8: Fixed description of box to follow the original rNews definition (instead of accidental copy of polygon). Added explanatory text to GeoShape regarding commas/whitespace.
- Fix to #224: Changed expected value of openingHours to be Text rather than Duration, since latter is for ISO formats not our custom micro-syntax.
- Fix to #112: Clarified that upvoteCount and downvoteCount apply to questions, answers and comments (rather than just to questions).
- Fix to #103: Clarified description of StructuredValue.
- Fix to #333: Clarified description of BreadcrumbList.
- Fix to 456: Generalized numberOfEmployees, to apply to Organization as well as to BusinessAudience.
- Fix to #439: Clarified numberOfItems with multi-page pagination.
- Fixed the mapping from DataCatalog to dcat:Catalog
- Fix to #341: Amended programmingLanguage to expect a Language rather than a Thing.
- Fix to #365: Extended award for use on Organization, Product.
- Fix to #145: Marked serviceAudience as supersededBy the more general audience property.
- Fix to #165: Renamed ingredients to recipeIngredient, improved the description, and added ItemList as a possible value for recipeInstructions.
- Fix to #171: Removed Class as a value of query property.
- Fix to #183: comment property now applicable to an RsvpAction, and can have Comment as values.
- Fix to #193: aggregateRating and review properties are now expected on Brand, Event, Service.
- Fix to #247: We now write "antonym" instead of the incorrect "antagonym" in several Action definitions.
- Fix to #316: Marked warrantyPromise as supersededBy warranty.
- Fix to #213: Amended eligibleRegion and ineligibleRegion to have the same associated types.
- Fix to #315: Updated BroadcastService, marking it as a kind of Service rather than just Thing.
- Fix to #426: Broadened supersededBy to be usable with classes and enumerations.
- Fix to #366: Reworded description of publication to use 'item' instead of a list of types (which had omitted Book), and marked it as applicable to CreativeWork.
- Fix to #288: added properties related to boarding passes to FlightReservation.
- Fix to #329: expanded BroadcastService and added new types CableOrSatelliteService, BroadcastChannel, TelevisionChannel, and RadioChannel to support TV/radio schedules. Thanks, Yves Raimond for careful review.
- Fix to #335: added gameLocation to VideoGameSeries.
- Fix to #336: added actor and director to Series.
- Fix to #364: replaced non-existent Award type with Book in WinAction type. Thanks, unor.
- Fix to #386: Fixed extra spaces in labels.
|Lots of bugfixes and small improvements, plus new terms to describe visual artworks and invoices.
- Added VisualArtwork type and supporting properties - artEdition, artform, material, surface. Thanks, Paul Watson.
- Added an Invoice type to represent invoices/bills, with additional properties totalPaymentDue,
minimumPaymentDue, accountId, scheduledPaymentDate, billingPeriod, paymentStatus, referencesOrder.
- Fix to allow offers on AggregateOffer. Thanks, Simon Spero, Zinebb.
- Expanded the list of types that musicBy applies to, matching those of actor and director. Thanks, Simon Spero.
- Adding priceSpecification to TradeAction type, fixing #305.
- Adding deliveryMethod to OrderAction type, fixing #306.
- Adjusted description of width, height and depth properties to be "the ___ of the item.", rather than list specific types.
Quick fixes and Examples
- Fixes to several examples, thanks to Gregg Kellogg.
- Fixes to Book example, thanks to unor.
- Added name property in CreativeWork examples; Improved MedicalScholarlyArticle example, marking up the abstract using description - thanks to Dan Scott.
- Corrected a case typo in numberOfEmployees. Thanks, Stéphane Corlosquet.
- Fixed mistaken use of "MovieGameSeries"; reported by both Gregg and Simon.
- Fixed valuePattern definition; it takes Text values, not Number. Thanks, Holger.
- Fixed definitions for fromLocation, toLocation; they do not support numeric values. Thanks, Simon Spero.
- Fixed producer property; it takes an Organization value, rather than applying to organizations. Thanks, unor.
- Fixed typo: clinicalPharmacology is supersededBy clinicalPharmacology. Thanks, Marc.
- Fixed an example that used "Address" instead of PostalAddress. Thanks, unor.
- Added 100+ periods / full stops (".") to end each definition.
|ItemList and BreadcrumbList changes; Sports-related improvements; Added a Music vocabulary; Video games. Also weight/height on Person; Control and RSVP actions; Role names; Dated monetary values.
- Updated ItemList to allow for richer kinds of lists (including ordering), rather than just strings; added BreadcrumbList
- The weight and height properties can now be with the Person type. Added netWorth to Person. Added EmployeeRole.
- Added SportsOrganization as a super-type of SportsTeam,
representing sports organizations, including sports teams, governing bodies, and sports associations.
Added a sport property to indicate the associated sport(s) for a SportsOrganization; also
added coach and athlete properties.
Added numberedPosition property to OrganizationRole.
Added homeTeam and awayTeam properties to SportsEvent, alongside a super-property of those, competitor.
- Added a VideoGame type with two super-types:
SoftwareApplication and a new Game type.
We anticipate a need for future work around Game,
see issue #169.
VideoGame has cheatCode,
and gameTip properties, plus a few supporting types. A property softwareHelp
has also been added to SoftwareApplication to indicate supporting documentation.
- While integrating VideoGame an issue was
raised around the need to describe series of games.
As a result we have made some changes to the Series type, which previously emphasised only
TV and Radio Series: added VideoGameSeries,
BookSeries, and MovieSeries. The recently added
Periodical type is also now modeled as a Series subtype. Some redundant
type/property associations were also tidied up. The existing
trailer property can now be used with
VideoGame and VideoGameSeries.
Added ControlAction (previously proposed as OperateAction). Add expectsAcceptanceOf
on ConsumeAction (previously proposed as 'contingentOnOffer'). Added ineligibleRegion
(on Offer, previously proposed as 'notAvailableAtOrFrom').
- Add rsvpResponse, additionalNumberOfGuests properties
to the existing RsvpAction type
(see also github issue and details).
This change also adds an enumeration RsvpResponseType: RsvpResponseYes, RsvpResponseNo,
RsvpResponseMaybe. Finally, we add a new possible ActionStatusType: FailedActionStatus,
alongside an error property linking an Action to more information on the cause of the failure.
- Add roleName to Role, superceding namedPosition (see also issue and details).
- Add to MusicAlbum properties: albumProductionType,
albumReleaseType, albumRelease (and inverse, releaseOf).
Supporting enumerated types: MusicAlbumProductionType (CompilationAlbum, DemoAlbum,
DJMixAlbum, LiveAlbum, MixtapeAlbum, RemixAlbum,
SoundtrackAlbum, SpokenWordAlbum, StudioAlbum.
MusicAlbumReleaseType (AlbumRelease, BroadcastRelease, EPRelease,
Add new types: MusicRelease, MusicComposition, the latter with properties musicArrangement,
composer, firstPerformance, includedComposition, iswcCode,
lyricist, musicCompositionForm, musicalKey, recordedAs (inverse: recordingOf).
Expand track to allow ItemList values, for lists of MusicRecording, and
genre to apply to MusicGroup. See also details.
- Broadened the description of logo property, to match the types it applies to. See also github issue and details.
- Added a DatedMoneySpecification type for non-price monetary values, by analogy with PriceSpecification and its subtypes. Added amount and
currency properties and tweaked startDate and endDate property definitions to fit.
- See also blog post...
Quick fixes and Examples
See also issue list for this release.
|Offer/price documentation fixes, cleanup and community contributions.
- Updated text of the price property to include practical usage guidance, alongside
links to information from GS1 to the gtin-related Offer properties.
- Updated all our examples to follow that guidance; primarily by using priceCurrency and the content= attribute.
- Noted our thanks to the OpenDomain project for our domain name.
- Updated the text of the 'image' property to match its expected types. Thanks, Dan Scott.
- Changed spelling of 'supercededBy' to the more conventional supersededBy. Thanks, Sachini Aparna Herath.
- Noted that 'logo' and 'photo' are sub-properties of 'image'. Thanks, Sachini Aparna Herath, again.
- Fixed two syntax errors in examples (Store opening hours RDFa; Book, PublicationVolume Microdata). Thanks, Gregg Kellogg.
- Added Tolkien-based examples for exampleOfWork/workExample. Thanks, Dan Scott, again.
- Fixed a bug with our UTF-8 support. Thanks, Richard Wallis.
|Bibliographic improvements (Periodical and more) alongside seller/broker/provider clarifications.
Several bibliographic improvements, thanks to the work of the W3C BibExtend Community Group.
Improved handling of Periodicals, Articles and Multi-volume Works,
introducing types and supporting properties for Periodical,
PublicationIssue. Adds new Article properties:
pageStart, pageEnd and pagination.
CreativeWork gains a convenience inverse of isPartOf called
hasPart, as well as a new pair of inverses, workExample and
exampleOfWork that link specific and general perspectives on creative works. Many thanks to
all the BibExtend group members, to Richard Wallis
for chairing, and to Dan Scott for implementing.
Provider/Seller vocabulary: this update also clarifies how to use a set of related terms, integrating sections of schema.org that had developed
separately. Full details are documented at W3C
and in Github, alongside an overview document.
The provider property describes a service provider, service operator, or service performer, while
seller describe the entities which sell or offer a service on behalf of an actual service provider. We
introduce a more general broker property (replacing the over-specific bookingAgent),
as well as deprecating vendor and merchant in favour of seller.
Regarding flights and parcel delivery, carrier is
superseded by provider. Please also note that flightNumber should now be written in full (i.e. "UA110" rather than just "110").
See the supporting documents for details.
Finally, episodeNumber, seasonNumber and
clipNumber (for TV/Radio) have been harmonized with the periodicals design
(issueNumber and volumeNumber). In each case, both Integer
and Text values are anticipated. A common superproperty, position can also be used. This
reflects implementation experience and
establishes a model that can be applied elsewhere, e.g. ongoing work on describing music.
This update also improves the display and navigation of supersededBy relations between
schema.org properties (e.g. see seller).
The Terms of service document was also updated to note
that Yandex is now a schema.org Sponsor and to adopt the patent terms used by W3C.
|Added WebSite type; broadened isPartOf property.
Added a new CreativeWork type, WebSite: "A WebSite is a set of related web pages and other items typically
served from a single web domain and accessible via URLs." Also adopts the suggestion made by the BibExtend group and other
collaborators, to broaden the isPartOf property, which now relates any CreativeWork to any other CreativeWork.
This release also makes the Potential Actions documentation available in HTML.
Several markup fixes from Stéphane Corlosquet, alongside
improvements to the consistency of encoding /
associatedMedia property definitions thanks to Dan Scott.
|Allows image with ImageObject; adds Event organizers,
||This release amends the image property, noting that ImageObject is a
reasonable value. It also adds an organizer property to
Event. Changes around Map: we add and prefer a 'hasMap' property
which supersedes the older 'map' property, and we add a mapType property which comes with some enumerated values:
ParkingMap, SeatingMap, TransitMap,
VenueMap. A Map might be (but needn't be) also an ImageObject.
|Roles, various fixes, site navigation improvements.
||This release introduced the notion of a Role type to schema.org. See the blog post
for details. The Role mechanism applies across all of schema.org, and allows simple statements to be elaborated or
qualified, for example with temporal information. Other changes in this release include the addition of a
license property, and some documentation of properties used internally by schema.org's documentation system
(Property, Class, supersededBy, inverseOf).
Fixed an embarrassing typo - "dead" - in the diet property - thanks, Dan Scott. Various other
small changes - listed in the preview announcement.
|Tweaks and fixes.
||Tweaks to definition of 'keywords' to indicate that comma-separated entries are expected.
Several typo fixes from Stéphane Corlosquet. Adds a new icaoCode
text-valued property for Airport.
Updated description for flightNumber to note "not including the airline IATA code".
Added missing Actions-related definitions (urlTemplate, valueName).
|Examples, examples, examples.
Added two examples to accompany workPerformed. Added several local business, company contact and music event examples.
Several glitch and typo fixes including MedicalEnumeration, thanks to Dan Scott.
announcement blog post
Added workPerformed, a relationship between an Event and a CreativeWork
that is performed at the event.
Introduces vocabulary that enables websites to describe the actions they enable and how these actions can be invoked.
|Reservations, Q/A and more.
Added a Reservation schema. Question/Answer sites. Order changes. Added EmailMessage.
1.) This release of schema.org adds a finalized Reservations schema, which refines
earlier proposals discussed in the Web Schemas community over the last year.
See wiki for details.
The Reservations vocabulary includes: Reservation, ReservationPackage,
2.) Q/A sites
A simple vocabulary for Question/Answer and FAQ sites. It adds types for Question, Answer, and QAPage.
3.) Adds a type EmailMessage, analogous to the existing WebPage type.
(candidate release drafted as '1.0g'; not
formally announced but included in the change
to github-based publishing)
|Not-for-profit Offer and other fixes.
||This version adapts the wording around the Offer type to suit non-profit scenarios,
such as libraries. Thanks to Dan Scott and the BibExtend group for these proposals.
This change broadens the definition of Offer and makes associated changes to
OfferItemCondition, typically rewording "the item for sale" to
simply say "the item". The itemOffered property is now defined more
appropriately as "The item being offered." rather than "...sold.". The "seller"
property is now defined as "The organization or person making the offer.", a compromise to support
its use for more kinds of offer.
|Accessibility properties and Order type.
This release includes a schema for describing Orders,
as well as the Accessibility properties for
The W3C WebSchemas wiki has the Order proposal and
For Accessibility, see the blog post
for more background on the collaborations involved. See also
and the draft schema.
|TV/Radio; Civic Services; ContactPoint Event and Organization improvements.
TV/Radio improvements in collaboration with BBC and EBU - see guest blog post by Yves Raimond.
For example see TVEpisode.
For Background see the TV/Radio wiki entry.
Civic Services (which includes ContactPoint) was blogged
when first discussed. See also wiki entry.
Example type: GovernmentService.
Event improvements: wiki entry.
Organization improvements: wiki entry.
In particular, this update added department, and
|Actions (in the past).
Introduced a (past-tense) Actions vocabulary (see wiki)
This updated added an Action type, supporting properties, and a substantial set of subtypes. It was
followed in 2014 by a mechanism for describing potential actions.
|Added sameAs; broadened citation.
Adds sameAs property to Thing that makes it easier to indicate identifying URLs for entities
being described (wiki).
The citation property has been moved up to CreativeWork, from
Thanks to the BibExtend group for suggesting this small but useful improvement.
|Adds LRMI, Datasets, Audience, Technical Publishing vocabulary and more.
For LRMI (Learning Resource Metadata Initiative), a collaboration co-led
by Association of Educational Publishers (AEP) and Creative Commons:
Added several properties, mainly to CreativeWork.
Added AlignmentObject type, for aligning content to educational coding schemes.
Added Dataset type (collaboration building upon work at W3C and elsewhere).
See also blog,
Added Audience and related types, useful for LRMI and other applications
Added Technical Publishing vocabulary: TechArticle, APIReference,
Code. See also early
blog post and Wiki entries for TechArticleSchema,
|Added Good Relations e-commerce vocabulary.
||Added substantial e-commerce vocabulary based on Good Relations;
re-engineered site to accept RDFa/RDFS schema definitions from community.(wiki)
(announcement blog post
and email from Martin Hepp)
|Fix for requiresSubscription property.
A minor bugfix release, which improved the documentation of requiresSubscription property.
We now encourage its Boolean value to be represented as true/false rather than yes/no.
|Added DateTime, Time datatypes.
||Added two datatypes in preparation for Good Relations integration.
|Added additionalType property.
||Added additionalType property (wiki).
"An additional type for the
item, typically used for adding more specific types from external
vocabularies in microdata syntax. This is a relationship between
something and a class that the thing is in. In RDFa syntax, it is
better to use the native RDFa syntax - the 'typeof' attribute - for
multiple types. Schema.org tools may have only weaker understanding of
extra types, in particular those defined externally."
|Added Medical/Health vocabulary.
This release added substantial vocabulary in the medical/health domain (around 100 classes, 200 properties). The additions are
mainly organized beneath the MedicalEntity type. An
overview document is also provided. From the blog post:
"This collaborative project drew upon search expertise from the schema.org partners but also gained immeasurably through feedback from expert reviewers including the US NCBI; physicians at Harvard, Duke and other institutions, as well as from several health Web sites. Contributions from the W3C Healthcare and Lifesciences group and Web Schemas community also helped bridge the complex worlds of Web standards, search and medicine/healthcare."
|Removed plural 's' suffix from repeatable properties; added Comment type, SoftwareApplication vocabulary.
Added new properties per Singularity proposal:
23 changes: actor, album, attendee, award, blogPost, colleague, contactPoint, employee, encoding, episode, event, founder, map, member, parent, performer, photo, review, season, sibling, significantLink, subEvent, track.
Each of these originally had a plural 's' to indicate repeatability. After discussion in the W3C WebSchemas group, the consensus was that
this was confusing and worthwhile changing.
This revision added a new type, 'Comment', whose super-type is CreativeWork
Also adds SoftwareApplication and supporting vocabulary (wiki, original proposal),
including MobileApplication, WebApplication subtypes.
Converged URL/Url spelling. After WebSchemas discussion, consensus was:
For each of embedURL, contentURL, downloadURL, ensure there is an equivalent property named with mixed-case: 'embedUrl', 'contentUrl', 'downloadUrl'.
Note: this table is not currently complete - it misses 0.92-0.94 and any changes between 2011-06-02 and 2012-04-21(0.91). See also Linked Open Vocabularies entry.